To establish a common set of procedures and equipment needed to implement Large Diameter Hose strike teams using fire apparatus from different agencies.
The goal is to have a system in place for utilization of a Large Diameter Hose strike team when requested by any fire agency in the county. This is to provide the maximum flow of water to a fire scene up to a mile away from the source.
Establish a common set of terms to be used by each member of the strike teams in order to eliminate a possibility for confusion.
Establish a recommended specification for agencies considering the purchase of an engine equipped to pump large diameter hose.
This guideline applies to all emergency agencies operating within Burlington County that have a need to request a large diameter hose strike team.
It is the intent of this guideline to ensure compliance with the National Incident Management System (NIMS). Standard terminology, strike team components, and other resources are identified using NIMS guidelines.
Friction Loss: the pressure drop that occurs to water after it is pumped through appliances or sections of hose, usually referred to in 100 foot lengths of hoseline.
Fully Dressed Hydrant: to utilize all the connections from the hydrant into the supply engine.
Gallons Per Minute (G.P.M.): The term that is used in discussing flow rate.
Large Diameter Discharge: A gated discharge from the fire pump of which the inside diameter of all the plumbing is at least 3.5 inches. A 4 inch or larger discharged would be desired.
Low Level Strainer: A strainer that sits flat on the bottom of the portable pond, which allows the pond to be pulled down to 2 inches of water depth. The strainer must have a minimum rating of 1,000 GPM.
Parallel Pumping: A two stage centrifugal pump using both impellers at equal pressure and flow rate, "volume" mode.
Pipeline: 5 inch Large Diameter Hose Strike Team consisting of at least 6 Type I engines carrying a minimum of 1,000’ of 5 inch hose.
Pipeline Fire Pump: Any pump mounted permanently on a piece of fire apparatus, with a rated discharge capacity of 1,500 G.P.M. or greater.
Portable Pond: A collapsible pond constructed with a tubular frame, carried on the apparatus capable of holding a minimum of 3,000 gallons of water.
Positive Displacement Pump Also Known as Priming Pump: A pump widely used in the fire service for priming operations. This pump is able to pump air out of the main pump creating a vacuum, so that water can enter the main fire pump.
Positive Pressure Water Source: Any source of water supplied to the pumper that is under pressure, (hydrant, another pump, etc.).
Residual Pressure: A pressure reading from the intake side of the pump taken as water is being pumped from that source.
Revolutions Per Minute (R.P.M.) : The term used for measuring engine or pump speed.
Series Pumping: A two stage centrifugal pump, having water pumped from one impeller to the other impeller in order to increase the discharge pressure of the pump, ("pressure" mode).
Static Pressure: A pressure reading from the intake side of the pump taken prior to water being pumped from that source.
Static Water Source: Any body of water, other than a positive pressure water source that can be used by the driver to supply water to the fire scene by the use of drafting.
Throttle Up: Raising the pump to the proper pressure for the LDH operation. 180-PSI maximum discharge pressure or 20 PSI on the compound gauge, whichever occurs first.
Wetting the Hose: The process of filling the LDH with water, not exceeding 50 PSI. To expend air from the hose line leading to the receiving engine.
IV. Apparatus and Equipment
The apparatus used in the 5-inch pipeline should meet the following specifications:
1,500 GPM fire pump
Minimum of 1,000 feet of 5-inch hose with stortz couplings
Minimum of one large diameter intake with bleeder, with safety pressure relief valve.
Minimum of one large diameter discharge
Each pipeline must be equipped with at least 60’ of hard suction tubes with a barrel strainer or floating dock.
A minimum crew of one qualified apparatus operator, and 3 firefighters.
V. Strike Teams
Large Diameter Hose pipelines will be established to respond upon a request from an incident commander or coordinator.
Agency participation in the pipeline will be voluntary.
Participants of each pipeline shall follow the same procedures.
The pipeline shall consist of at least six (6) engines, which meet the specifications listed in Section III.
A pipeline leader shall be selected for each pipeline to coordinate training.
The pipeline leaders should meet regularly to discuss modifications or update procedures.
Pipeline leaders shall organize at minimum one (1) exercise per year that includes laying 5,000 feet of 5” hose.
The pipeline leaders shall report their activities to the Fire Coordinator or designee responsible for the Large Diameter Hose project.
VI. Calls for Service
Any fire fighting agency in Burlington County may request a pipeline to respond into their area. The incident commander is encouraged to determine the need for the pipeline at the earliest possible point in the incident.
A request for a pipeline will activate the County Coordinator and/or designee to respond with the pipeline.
The selection of the pipeline to respond must be based upon apparatus already committed to the assignment. (A pipeline from another region may be needed since apparatus of the local pipeline would probably be committed to the assignment already!)
On large-scale incidents, consideration should be given to moving another pipeline from a farther region into a staging area.
Staging of the pipeline shall be away from the Level II staging.
To streamline the dispatch, the tones shall be sounded for all the pipeline companies, and then the following shall be announced:
Pipeline C “Charlie”, in Mount Laurel, Hartford Road and Marne Hwy., the Second alarm. and repeat.
Individual engines dispatched will not be announced.
If an engine needs to be added to fill out a pipeline, the announcement shall be as follows:
Pipeline C “Charlie”, Engine 3911, in Mount Laurel, Hartford Road and Marne Hwy., the Second alarm. and repeat.
Central Communications shall announce the radio channel assignment for the response. Upon arrival on location, the pipeline leader shall direct the pipeline apparatus to the assigned channel for the operation. (The R-4 channel in the region where the incident is locate will likely be the assigned channel unless unavailable due to previous assignments.)
The following procedure shall be followed when initiating a large diameter hose relay:
A team leader or coordinator will assume control of the pipeline and place the engines as they arrive.
The team leader shall determine from the incident commander where the supply of water is located. The water supply selected must be capable of maintaining the desired flow.
The first in pipeline engine (with largest pump) will assume the position at the water source and set up to take in water.
for hydrant operations - fully dress the hydrant, use the most efficient means of flowing water from the hydrant into the pump. The front suction connection should not be used.
for drafting operations - attempt to locate a suction point with the least amount of lift.
The first engine will take in water to the pump as soon as it’s ready. The operator shall record the static pressure. If drafting is used, return the water into the source via nozzle or hose until the order for “throttle up” is given. This will maintain the suction until the flow has been established.
The next engine will place the end of its 5-inch supply line under the tire of the supply engine’s furthest axle from the fire. (This will allow for extra hose to be used for making connections.) The engine will then begin to lay the line.
After the engine lays about two lengths of hose, the driver of the supply engine will then make the connection to its large diameter discharge. The operator will then standby and wait for orders to charge the line.
After the engine lays 10 lengths of hose (1,000 feet), it will stop and take the supply line and connect it to the large diameter intake. When the connection is made he will notify the supply engine to send the water (“wet the hose”). The supply engine will send the water to wet the hose to 50 P.S.I.
The next engine will come to the end of the relay and follow the same procedure as listed in # 5 to # 7. This procedure shall be followed until the relay reaches the fireground. The Pipeline Leader shall direct engines not used in the relay to staging for possible redeployment.
When the entire relay is complete, upon the order to “throttle up”, the supply engine will raise the pressure until it reaches a maximum 180 PSI discharge pressure or minimum 20 PSI residual pressure whichever occurs first. Radio traffic should be kept to a minimum.
Each engine thereafter will do the same. It will take a few minutes for the pressures to level out.
There should be a location for each engine in the relay to dump off water if necessary to relieve pressure or keep their pumps from overheating.
When it is determined that the LDH supply is to be shut down, an announcement via radio will be announced, and the supply engine will start winding down the throttle slowly.
Each operator of the relay engines will then wind their throttles down slowly.
At the conclusion of the incident, the pipeline leader will meet with the incident commander to determine if changes could have been made to improve the delivery of water to the scene.
A critique of the water supply operation should be scheduled as soon as practical following the incident.
A report should be made to the Fire Coordinator listing details of the operation, estimated flow rate and recommend any changes in policy or procedures.
Any recommended changes will be evaluated by the LDH work group and if approved, shall be implemented as the procedure for all pipelines.
All fire departments in Burlington County shall receive a copy of this plan. All Chief Officers shall become familiar with this plan.
Any plan previously published that is in conflict with this plan is hereby rescinded.